[4] According to the Gospels, the twelve apostles are charged with judging the twelve tribes of Israel following the general resurrection (Matt 19:27-30). The New Testament, accordingly, has no reason to make any provisions whereby any of the twelve would have successors. Judas failed and according to Acts, Matthias was chosen to replace him "as a witness with us to his [Jesus'] resurrection" (1:22). Only later, in the latter half of the second century, does the church first use the notion of "apostolic succession." For details, see Peter in the New Testament, edited by Raymond E. Brown, Karl P. Donfried, and John Reumann, published jointly by the Augsburg Publishing House (Lutheran) and the Paulist Press (Catholic), 1973.