12 . Michael J. Gorman, in Abortion & the Early Church (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1982), shows that, for most Church Fathers, "a certain stage of development is necessary before there is a person and, hence, before there can be a murder" (p. 69). For an in-depth study, see Daniel Dombrowski, "St. Augustine, Abortion, and Libido Crudelis," Journal of the History of Ideas 49 (1988) 151-156.